Mr. J.R. is a 73-year-old man, who was admitted to the hospital with clinical manifestations of
gastroenteritis and possible renal injury. The patient’s chief complaints are fever, nausea with
vomiting and diarrhea for 48 hours, weakness, dizziness, and a bothersome metallic taste in the
mouth. The patient is pale and sweaty. He had been well until two days ago, when he began to
experience severe nausea several hours after eating two burritos for supper. The burritos had
been ordered from a local fast-food restaurant. The nausea persisted and he vomited twice with
some relief. As the evening progressed, he continued to feel “very bad” and took some PeptoBismol to help settle his stomach. Soon thereafter, he began to feel achy and warm. His
temperature at the time was 100. 5°F. He has continued to experience nausea, vomiting, and a
fever. He has not been able to tolerate any solid foods or liquids. Since yesterday, he has had 5–6
watery bowel movements. He has not noticed any blood in the stools. His wife brought him to the
ER because he was becoming weak and dizzy when he tried to stand up. His wife denies any
recent travel, use of antibiotics, laxatives, or excessive caffeine, or that her husband has an eating
Case Study Questions
1. The attending physician is thinking that Mr. J.R. has developed an Acute Kidney Injury (AKI).
Analyzing the case presented name the possible types of Acute Kidney Injury. Link the clinical
manifestations described to the different types of Acute Kidney injury.
2. Create a list of risk factors the patient might have and explain why.
3. Unfortunately, the damage on J.R. kidney became irreversible and he is now diagnosed with
Chronic kidney disease. Please describe the complications that the patient might have on his
Hematologic system (Coagulopathy and Anemia) and the pathophysiologic mechanisms
Ms. P.C. is a 19-year-old white female who reports a 2-day history of lower abdominal pain,
nausea, emesis and a heavy, malodorous vaginal discharge. She states that she is single,
heterosexual, and that she has been sexually active with only one partner for the past eight
months. She has no previous history of genitourinary infections or sexually transmitted diseases.
She denies IV drug use. Her LMP ended three days ago. Her last intercourse (vaginal) was eight
days ago and she states that they did not use a condom. She admits to unprotected sex “every
once in a while.” She noted an abnormal vaginal discharge yesterday and she describes it as
“thick, greenish-yellow in color, and very smelly.” She denies both oral and rectal intercourse. She
does not know if her partner has had a recent genitourinary tract infection, “because he has been
away on business for five days.
Microscopic Examination of Vaginal Discharge
(-) yeast or hyphae
(-) flagellated microbes
(+) white blood cells
(+) gram-negative intracellular diplococci
Case Study Questions
1. According to the case presented, including the clinical manifestations and microscopic
examination of the vaginal discharge, what is the most probably diagnosis for Ms. P.C.?
Support your answer and explain why you get to that diagnosis.
2. Based on the vaginal discharged described and the microscopic examination of the sample
could you suggest which would be the microorganism involved?
3. Name the criteria you would use to recommend hospitalization for this patient
Types of Acute Kidney Injury and Link the clinical manifestations to the different types of Acute Kidney injury
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a sudden failure of kidney or kidney damage that occurs with a few hours or days. Based on the cause, AKI can either be Prerenal, intrinsic, or postrenal. Prerenal injury is where there is a decrease in the renal blood flow which results in sepsis, trauma, bleeding as well as poor cardiac output (Sever et al., 2020). Some of the key causes include sepsis, decreased blood pressure, hemorrhage, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and cyclooxygenase inhibitor which hinder the synthesis of prostaglandin. Some of the symptoms experienced by patients with Prerenal injury include vomiting and diarrhea. The patient in the case study states that he has not been able to tolerate any solid food or liquids had he has had 5.6 watery bowel movements. The second type of AKI is the Intrinsic Injury which can be categorized based on the part of the kidney that is affected, which includes tubular,..Click link below to purchase full tutorial at $10